Diet and Nutrition – Vitamin supplements B6
Vitamin B6 occurs in three forms–pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. B6 is absorbed in the large intestine. The muscle stores roughly 75-80 % of the vitamin while the live stores about 5 10 %.
B6 is required for transaminations, decarboxylations, dehydratases, side chain cleavage reactions, and ammonia release. Its aldehyde group works as a Schiff base to react with the amino groups of amino acids. It basically acts to shuttle nitrogen between compounds.
Functions- The 3 types of B6 can all be turned in on the coenzyme PLP that aids in transamination & protein metabolism. PLP is essential for glycogen degradation; in addition, it will help with the formation of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, the nonprotein part of hemoglobin (heme), nucleic acids, and lecithin. Vitamin B6 is essential for the metabolic process of tryptophan to niacin.
· Transaminations These reactions are necessary to recycle and also reuse nitrogen in the body. They’re the initial step in amino acid catabolism and the very last stage in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids. Example: a-ketoglutarate + asparate glutamate + oxaloacetate
· Serine/ Threonine Deamination (Dehydratases) This response has the generation of the a keto acids of threonine as well as serine through oxidative removal of N as ammonia Example: Serine a-keto-serine + NH4+
· Decarboxylation These reactions often appear on the neuroactive amines of seratonin, tyramine, histamine, and GABA. They also are crucial in porphyrin synthesis, intermediates in the synthesis of sphingomyelin, lecithin and taurine, and also for the description and desulfuration of cysteine.
· Glycogen Phosphorylase fifty % of all B6 within the body is certain to glycogen phosphorylase though the value is unknown. The response is vital for recycling of folate and is as follows:
Serine glycine + 5,10-methylene-THF
Deficiency Deficiencies of vitamin B6 are quite uncommon. People with a diet deficient in vitamin B6 will first show signs of weakness, nervousness, insomnia, irritability, and hydrated skin lesions. Much more advanced symptoms include things like growth failure, impaired motor function, hypochromic microcytic anemia, sleek tongue, as well as convulsions.
The impaired motor performance and other psychological problems may be attributed to a decrease in amino acid-based neurotransmitters (serotonin, GABA, tyramine, epinephrine). You see an increase in urea excretion because of a decline synthesis of nonessential amino acids. The nitrogen from these amino acids is not reprocessed by transamination and instead is excreted and also lost. You see an increase in urinary excretion especially within the next amino acids: metabolites of glycine, methionine, & tryptophan. The hypochromic microcytic anemia is due to the fact that there is a decreased synthesis of the B6 dependent porphyrin ring of hemoglobin.
People who are at most risk include the aged with poor vitamin intake, alcoholics, hemodialysis patients, and those people that are on drug therapy. Overall, people with a high metabolic stress.
Sources Foods richest in vitamin B6 include:
o whole grains o legumes o nuts o navy beans o walnuts o meat (sirloin plus chicken) o fish (salmon plus shellfish) o bananas and apples o broccoli and spinach
Therapeutics Vitamin B6 could provide therapeutic benefits for the following syndromes: carpal tunnel syndrome, glucose intolerance, sideroblastic anemia, neurologic disorders, hyperoxaluria, convulsive seizures, monosodium glutarate (MSG) intolerance, premenstral syndrome (Immune function and pms). Moreover, vitamin B6 might help to reduce homocysteine levels and hence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.